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Student Project: Takings Clause: Landmark Case: Penn Central v. City of New York

A research guide on the Takings Clause

Three-Factor Regulatory Takings Test

The court must evaluate a regulatory takings claim based  on:

  1. the regulatory impact of the decision 
  2. the owner's reasonable investment-backed expectations
  3. character of the regulatory action 

Landmark case

Parcel as a Whole Doctrine: Articles

Digest Topics and Key Numbers*

Scholarly Articles