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Student Project: Compulsory Vaccination Law In New York State: Vaccination Information & Requirements

Compulsory Vaccination Laws in New York With an Emphasis on Provisions for Minors and School Admissions

Mandated Vaccines for School Admissions

New York State Department of Health working in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control directs that children aged 2 months  to 18 years of age are required by law (barring any legally permissible religious or moral exemptions) to receive various vaccinations in order to gain admissions to public and private New York State Schools for the welfare of the general public.

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis (DTaP)

Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) are all bacterial diseases

  • Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of the throat that may lead to respiratory issues, paralysis, heart failure, and/or possibly death.
  • Tetanus (Lockjaw) causes painful tightening of the muscles. It can lead to "locking" of the jaw so the victim cannot open his mouth or swallow. Tetanus leads to death in about 1 in 10 cases.
  •  Pertussis (Whooping Cough) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection.

Vaccines:

(Required for school admission & administered in infants 6 weeks to children up to 7 years of age)

Meningococcal Disease & Pneumococcal Disease (PCV)

Meningococcal disease  is any illness that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis which may cause severe infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), as well as bloodstream infections (bacteremia or septicemia).

Vaccines: Menomune, Menactra, Menveo, MenHibrix, Trumenba & Bexsero.

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium, which can cause ear and sinus infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections.

Vaccines: Prevnar13 (PCV13) & Pneumovax 23 (PPSV23).

(Required for school admission & administered in all children aged 2 through 18 years old)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is very common. Most people—about 9 in 10—will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives. HPV infections can cause health problems, including several kinds of cancer in both women and men.

Vaccines: Gardasil 9, Gardasil & Cervarix.

Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib)

Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) is a bacterial infection that can cause severe illness, including infections of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), lung infections (pneumonia), and severe throat infections (epiglottitis).

Vaccines:

  • PedvaxHIB: children 2 through 15 months of age.
  • ActHIB: children 2 through 15 months of age.
  • Hiberix: children 15 months through 4 years of age.
  • Comvax: children 6 weeks through 15 months of age. It protects against Hib and Hepatitis B.
  • Pentacel: children 2 through 18 months of age to protect against Hib, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio.
  • MenHibRix: children 2 through 15 months of age to protect against Hib and meningococcal serogroups C & Y.

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)

Measles causes fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. Complications can include ear infection, diarrhea, pneumonia, brain damage, and death.

Mumps causes fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and swollen salivary glands. Complications can include swelling of the testicles or ovaries, deafness, inflammation of the brain and/or tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (encephalitis/meningitis) and, rarely, death.

Rubella causes fever, sore throat, rash, headache, and red, itchy eyes. If a woman gets rubella while she is pregnant, she could have a miscarriage or her baby could be born with serious birth defects.

Vaccine: M-M-R II.

(Required for school admission & administered in people 12 months of age and older)

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain.

Vaccines: Rotarix & RotaTeq.

Varicella (Chickenpox)

Varicella is a very contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is responsible for the formation of blister-like rashes, itching, tiredness, and fever.

Vaccines: Varivax & ProQuad: used in children ages 1 through 12 years of age. (MMRV).

Hepatitis

The Hepatitis A virus causes liver disease that can last from a few weeks to several months.  People become infected by close personal contact with someone who is infected or by drinking or eating contaminated food or drinks.

The Hepatitis B virus causes a contagious liver disease that can cause cancer and cirrhosis (scarring of the liver).  It is spread when infected blood, semen, or other body fluid enters the body of a person who is not infected.

Vaccines: Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix, Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, Pediarix

(Required for school admission & administered in all children aged <19 years who have not been vaccinated previously)