Signed into law by President Richard Nixon in 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)  created the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)  and is generally considered to be the nation's first modern environmental statute . Under the procedural requirements of NEPA , federal governmental agencies are required to "use all practicable means" in order to achieve any of six environmental goals including: "approaching maximum attainable recycling, preserving cultural heritage, and achieving a balance between population and resource use." . In order to comply with NEPA's requirements federal agencies in the context of proposed "major federal actions" must prepare either an Environmental Assessment [EA] or an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) . The preparation of either of these documents does not guarantee any particular result except "that the agency take a “hard look” at the environmental consequences before taking a major action" . At present, fifteen states have enacted "Little NEPA" statutes that almost exactly mirror the EIS procedures of the federal Act .